japanese knotweed disposal massachusetts


Japanese knotweed patch growing in a flat, sunny area next to the Green River (Sept. 2004). This service involves the physical excavation of contaminated soils, ideal where the discovery of Japanese Knotweed has halted property developments or extension work. A large infestation of knotweed growing on the banks of the Green River. DRWA has produced, with the help of the Massachusetts Environmental Trust and CopyCat Print Shop of Greenfield, a brochure (in PDF format) that explains the identification and ecology of Japanese knotweed and the impacts of the plant on the environment. (1) Invasive Plant Atlas of New England (IPANE): This site is good for photographs of invasive plants that are found in New England, as well as information on early detection of invasives: plants that are not yet found in our area but are likely candidates to show up here. Keep in mind; however, that even small pieces of the plant have the potential to cause a new infestation so be careful not to spread it when cutting. Knotweed plants can be cut using a variety of tools: a brush cutter, lawnmower, machete, or loppers. A balanced eco-system means to have harmony between all plant DRWA Japanese Knotweed Eradication & Disposal The disposal of Japanese Knotweed is bound by several Environment Agency (EA) regulations. Homeowner’s Guide to Japanese Knotweed Control Developed by the Northwoods Cooperative Weed Management Area 7/2007 Japanese knotweed (Polygonum cuspidatum) is a non-native invasive species that threatens our And no matter which method is used, the process will take a considerable amount of time and effort. Of all the invasive species, Japanese Knotweed (Polygonum cuspidatum), once established, is one of the most difficult to manage and eradicate. For those who want to dispose of Japanese knotweed in somewhere other than their own property, there are strict requirements to keep in mind. It is hoped that the shade produced by the trees and shrubs will eventually reduce the vigor of the Japanese knotweed, which grows much less vigorously under shady conditions. The particular method chosen should depend on the size of the infestation or patch, ease of access to the site, presence of rare or sensitive plants or communities, cost, and the preference of the landowner. The law regarding the disposal of Japanese Knotweed There are many legal factors affecting the disposal of Japanese Knotweed. The safest and most suitable way to do away with Japanese knotweed is through controlled burning. Note how the plants have taken up the entire streambank and are hanging over the water. The New York State's Greene County Soil & Water Conservation District Stream Stewardship Program describes how to use plastic and the pros and cons of this method. Japanese knotweed is easy to spot any time of year: its round, green-speckled, red-brown, inch-thick, hollow stems are thick and woody, standing tall even during the winter. Do make sure to clean all cutting equipment to prevent the spread of knotweed to new areas. In regard to Japanese knotweed, this would mean total excavation of the knotweed (see ‘Excavation’ below). Japanese knotweed, Japanese bamboo, Mexican knotweed, Mexican bamboo Scientific Name: Polygonum cuspidatum Sieb. In the case of Japanese Knotweed, for example, to ensure that all viable plant material is removed, it may be necessary to excavate up to 7m horizontally in all directions from the perimeter of the infestation, and to a depth of 3m. It has a discussion of how serious the problem is in parts of Great Britain and why it's important to eradicate it when it's first found and not wait. Gather the knotweed for proper disposal. 8/9/06 Cutting of knotweed in late June or early July, followed by the application of a foliar spray of herbicide has been effective in most cases and is an efficient technique for treating large colonies, but follow-up treatment will be needed for several years. Legislation states that Japanese Knotweed is classed as controlled waste, and if not disposed of correctly, may lead to prosecution under section 34 of the 1990 Environmental Protection Act (EPA). Methods that have been used to successfully control knotweed include: mechanical means (cutting, pulling by hand, mowing, grazing), using herbicides, or a combination of both. Cornwall Council has an arrangement whereby private residents may take Japanese knotweed material, double bagged, to their nearest Household Waste Disposal site. Japanese knotweed can be burned or buried, but it cannot be composted while �green�. You can reduce the volume you need to dispose of by burning the weed. This site has data on all invasive species, plant and non-plant. (2) Cornwall, England website: This site is particularly good for how to identify the different parts of the plant and for general advice on knotweed control. A small patch of knotweed growing in a sandy area next to the Green River. If the plants are buried, make sure they are buried at least 10 feet deep! Japanese knotweed contractors rely on industrial grade herbicides for stem injection and spraying, it is important that you do not confuse these chemicals with weed killers and other sprays available form your local hardware store. Repeated cutting and mulching have generally not been found to be effective except for small recently established colonies. We will continue to update information on controlling invasives as new methods become available. Japanese knotweed (Fallopia japonica) is a non-native invasive perennial herb that forms dense colonies that out-compete and displace native species.New colonies frequently arise from plant fragments transported in soil and on soil moving equipment, vehicles, and footwear. Several methods have been employed to control Japanese knotweed on Mass Audubon wildlife sanctuaries. (4) In My Garden is Sue Sweeney's private website: She has a lot of good information on invasive plants, including some very clear photographs of the various stages of knotweed, from seedling to adult, and how the appearance of the plants change during the different seasons. Japanese knotweed is native to eastern Asia and was first introduced into North America in the late 1800s. Private homeowners can get rid of Japanese knotweed by burning it within a controlled environment. This can be done in the garden. & Zucc., syn. (5) The Global Invasive Species Initiative: This is The Nature Conservancy's website on invasive plants and animals and it has a wealth of information. HOME, Professor Robin Harrington and students at the, Invasive Plant Atlas of New England (IPANE), In My Garden is Sue Sweeney's private website, U.S. • One of the world’s worst invasive Japanese Knotweed Specialists are renowned within the industry as one of the UK’s leading contractors in the removal, treatment and control of Japanese Knotweed. The information on this page was gleaned from several sources, including websites (see list below) and The Japanese Knotweed Manual by Lois Child and Max Wade (2000). You must not: Crowds out native species (Stone 2010) The .gov means it’s official. Note: The expression �fly-tip or tipping� refers to disposing of trash or littering. You can pile it up and make sure it dries out thoroughly but you must monitor the pile to make sure it doesn't re-sprout or get blown into new areas or washed into a stream or pond. You can also try pulling out small plants, which can be successful because they don't have long roots. Successful eradication of Japanese knotweed can be achieved through a three-part process of removal, disposal, and re-vegetation. Make sure to check the surrounding areas (up to 20 feet away) for re-sprouts. Trees and shrubs have been planted in several Japanese knotweed stands to eventually shade the knotweed, making growing conditions less favorable for knotweed. Japanese knotweed ( Polygonum cuspidatum ) is an herbaceous, perennial plant that was originally from Asia. If you click on IPANE species you can look up individual invasive plants and get the description, ecology, and history of the plant in our area. In the United States it was introduced for horticultural purposes and became naturalized between the late 1800s and early 1900s. Knotweed can also spread by floating on rivers, streams or lakes. However, you may want to replant the area to jumpstart the process of re-vegetation. Some land managers recommend cutting plants every 2-3 weeks between April and September 1 st and less frequently thereafter (until plants die back in fall). Fish and Wildlife Service Silvio O. Conte National Fish and Wildlife Refuge, Community Foundation for Western Massachusetts, Cutting knotweed plants eventually kills the plant by starving the roots, Use several different methods to eradicate the plants, It will likely take several years to get rid of knotweed completely, Extreme vigilance is necessary to make sure that the plants do not re-infest a site, Do use protective clothing and/or glasses with brush cutters, Do not dig out large stands of knotweed � this will result in an increase in stem density from the fragmented root pieces, Do make sure that knotweed is disposed of correctly. A species profile for Japanese Knotweed. Please ring … Improper disposal of knotweed can lead to new infestations in areas that were previously knotweed-free. Make the last cut when the plant is about to go dormant (e.g., has stopped growing). Why is knotweed a problem? Subscribe to our e-news for the latest events, updates and info. Placing plant remains on plastic or some other impermeable surface is recommended. Cut Knotweed material and soils contain rhizomes must be disposed of as … What Japanese knotweed (Fallopia japonica) was brought from eastern Asia as a garden plant.This perennial herb grows up to 10 feet tall, with heart-shaped leaves and white flowers. Japanese knotweed can grow up to 10 feet tall by late summer and has large, green, heart-shaped leaves with clusters of white or cream-colored flowers. However, eradication becomes more difficult as the size of the area covered by plants increases. If you have grazing animals, Japanese knotweed can be safely eaten by sheep, cattle, horses, and goats. Japanese knotweed is easily recognisable at all stages of its growth, and has characteristic hollow bamboo-like stems which are usually pale green and purple in its mature state. Of these, the Massachusetts Invasive Plant Advisory Group (MIPAG), a committee where NHESP is represented, recognized 69 species as "Invasive," "Likely Invasive," or "Potentially Invasive." Japanese and giant knotweed. Removing invasive species may include manual, mechanical, or chemical methods. Landowners should be aware that removal of any type of knotweed or other plants that occurs in or near a wetland (and this includes stream or river banks) needs to be cleared through the local Conservation Commission. Japanese knotweed frequently colonizes stream banks where plant fragments are carried downstream by water, where they come to rest on sand bars and eroded banks and establish new colonies. Mass Audubon is a nonprofit, tax-exempt charitable organization (tax identification number 04-2104702) under Section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code. Note the rusty red color of the plants. It is native to East Asia in Japan, China and Korea. If you are working in your yard or garden, choose either native species or non-natives that do not have invasive properties. If any parts of the roots are left behind, these have the potential to re-sprout. Regardless of the method selected, it is very important to minimize the impact on non-target species and the environ… However, for many residential and commercial properties in particular, a full removal and disposal to landfill would be A close-up view of the large, heart-shaped leaves and flower clusters. You must dispose of Japanese knotweed waste off-site by transferring it to a disposal facility that’s permitted, such as a landfill site that has the right environmental permit. As knotweed is removed from a site, you will want to encourage the growth and establishment of native plants. Two of the sites also give general information on other species of invasive plants and animals. Knotweed is spread throughout watersheds when pieces of the roots and stems are transported in piles of dirt or fill, or are swept downstream during high water events. Plants can also be burned if it's the proper time of year. They prefer the new shoots, though. Cutting of individual knotweed stems followed by application of herbicide to the freshly cut stems has been generally effective, but is extremely labor intensive and requires follow up treatment in subsequent years. Do not �chip� knotweed for the same reason � small pieces can regenerate. Knotweed plants should be cut at ground-level. by MF Walk . Plants were pulled out during the growing season. New colonies frequently arise from plant fragments transported in soil and on soil moving equipment, vehicles, and footwear. This involves an effort to make site conditions less favorable for knotweed growth. Grazing will not completely remove the plant from an area, but will prevent it from spreading into adjacent areas. This species is most easily identified by its stalks that look similar to bamboo and are green to red in color. It was introduced to Great Britain around 1825 and was naturalized by 1886. Please contact drwa@deerfieldriver.org, Revised The plant arrived from Japan to the U.K. and then to North America in the 19th century as a landscaping ornamental. Japanese knotweed (Fallopia japonica) is a non-native invasive perennial herb that forms dense colonies that out-compete and displace native species. From there you'll find �Plants� and then a specific article on controlling knotweed ( Controlling knotweed in the Pacific Northwest ) written by ecologists at The Nature Conservancy. Six-inch sprays of tiny, greenish-white flowers sprout At the Boston Nature Center, an experimental approach to long-term Japanese knotweed control is underway. In this scenario, there is no time to carry out a 5 year herbicide treatment programme, especially if you have plans to excavate ‘Controlled Waste’ soils and develop within the affected areas. Fish and Wildlife Service Partners for Fish and Wildlife Program, U.S. Of the 2263 plant species in Massachusetts that have been documented as native or naturalized (established newcomers introduced directly or indirectly by man), about 725 (32%) are naturalized. For a discussion of management options, click on Manager's Toolkit on the right side, then go to �Control� and �Management Plans� by species. Please do not cut or pull plants and throw them in the river or stream, or on someone else's property . Because it can be spread vegetatively, the probability of moving Several techniques may be effective in controlling a single species. 1.2.3 PREVENTING FURTHER SPREAD Where possible all areas affected by Japanese knotweed has oval shaped leaves with a pointed tip and a tapered bottom. Japanese Knotweed Specialists We specialise in the removal and disposal of Japanese Knotweed from construction sites or any site that is being developed or remediated. It was used as an ornamental plant on properties and also for erosion control due to its deep and interwoven root system. Federal government websites always use a .gov or .mil domain. I have included several websites that provide accurate and easy-to-understand information on the identification of knotweed, control methods, and why we should be concerned about this plant. Manual and mechanical methods involve physically removing plants from the environment through cutting or pulling. Japanese knotweed disposal is bound by several Environment Agency (EA) regulations so if you want to burn it, bury it or dump it you need to be aware of the legislation that surrounds these activities. Landowners using mechanical methods of control should keep the following in mind: Whether cutting or mowing, it should be done at least four times a year between April and September. Japanese knotweed (Fallopia japonica), Giant knotweed (Fallopia sachalinensis), Bohemian knotweed (Fallopia x bohe-mica), and Himalayan knotweed (Polygonum polystachyum). For starters, the Japanese knotweed you've dug up and are hoping to drop off at some location will be classed as controlled waste because of its potential to cause ecological damage. Whichever Japanese Knotweed excavation method is used to eradicate and dispose of the plant, the legislation which surrounds this … management of Japanese knotweed, (V2.7) and Environment Agency ZTreatment and disposal of invasive non-native plants: RPS 178 (Nov 2016). It can also create a fire hazard in the dormant season. The brochure also outlines some of the methods that can be used to control knotweed and where to go for more information. 1 Purpose statement: Japanese knotweed is an aggressive invasive plant species that is becoming more widespread in the state of New Hampshire and the northeast. Because knotweed can grow through plastic, it can be difficult to achieve good control. In some situations native plants will readily re-establish themselves without any help. Dead canes or stalks left over from the previous growing season. Donations to Mass Audubon are tax-deductible to the full extent provided by law. Improper disposal of knotweed can lead to new infestations in areas that were previously knotweed-free. See their "Management Without Herbicide� website on this and more control methods. You're probably wondering what to do with the knotweed once it's been cut. We are an environmental company specialising in all types of land remediation, based in Co Kerry and we cover the whole of Ireland with our services. Regardless of whether you have removed knotweed in your yard or at a natural area it is essential that the site is monitored to make sure that re-infestation does not occur. Knotweed is now found growing in a wide range of habitats, including abandoned lots, highway rights-of-way, roadway edges, streambanks, and wetland edges. You can pile it up and make sure it dries out thoroughly but you must monitor the pile to make sure it doesn't re-sprout or get blown into new areas or washed into a stream or pond. Pulling the entire plant out of the ground is most effective when the infestation is new, plants are small, and you can get the entire plant. In the past, researchers thought that knotweed did not reproduce by seeds in North America, but results of recent studies suggest that this may not be the case. Boston Nature Center (Mattapan), Broad Meadow Brook Wildlife Sanctuary (Worcester), Endicott Wildlife Sanctuary (Wenham), Habitat Education Center (Belmont), Joppa Flats Education Center (Newburyport), Nahant Thicket Wildlife Sanctuary (Nahant), and Rough Meadows Wildlife Sanctuary Rowley). The technique and chemical used varies with the species. It prefers sunny, moist areas, including riverbanks, roadsides, lawns, and gardens. (3) US government website: There is a lot of information here, but for knotweed-specific information go to Species Profiles, click on plants, and scroll down to Japanese knotweed. At a site owned by the Conte National Fish and Wildlife Refuge, biologists found that cutting a patch of knotweed approximately 300 ft by 300 ft in size, 2-3 times a year during the growing season was enough to control the knotweed after 3 years. The information may be used for educational purposes but not for commercial use. It is our hope that readers will use this site as a place to start learning about invasive plants, especially Japanese knotweed. It's fairly easy to get around in, too. Scroll down to Eco-gardening � invasive plants and alley weeds - on the left side and click on Japanese knotweed. The brochure will be revised and updated as additional information becomes available on control methods and other aspects of knotweed ecology. In Japan, China and Korea see their `` Management Without Herbicide� website on this more... Grow horizontally as far as 23 feet from the environment through cutting or pulling China and Korea and naturalized... Sunny, moist areas, including riverbanks, roadsides, lawns, even. Originally from Asia recently established colonies large infestation of knotweed and where to go for more information service. Riverbanks, roadsides, lawns, and application of herbicide to freshly cut,! Cuspidatum Sieb will want to replant the area to jumpstart the process will take a considerable amount time! Within a controlled environment get rid of it actually helps it to new. For Japanese knotweed a tapered bottom �fly-tip or tipping� refers to disposing of trash or.... �Chip� knotweed for the same reason � small pieces that are generated by this method three! Some of the stem can form new plants cutting or pulling disposal of knotweed can be eaten. Tipping� refers to disposing of trash or littering method is used, the process of re-vegetation and. Can lead to new infestations to images to recent news of Japanese knotweed want to get around,! It can not be composted while �green� the stem can form new plants and alley weeds - on the side. Note: the expression �fly-tip or tipping� refers to disposing of trash littering. ( up to 20 feet away ) for re-sprouts removal by digging extremely difficult variety of tools: brush... Roots are left behind, these have included repeated cutting and mulching have generally not been to. Pieces of the methods that can be successful because they do n't have long roots, machete, or methods... Introduced into North America in the future, we will include information on controlling invasives as methods..., eradication becomes more difficult as the size of the methods that can be cut a! And was naturalized by 1886 Wildlife Program, U.S, roadsides, lawns and! Growing conditions less favorable for knotweed knotweed you want to get rid of Japanese knotweed can. Which method is used, the process of re-vegetation from an area, but will it... Update information on other species of invasive plants and alley weeds - on the right of... Between the late 1800s place to start learning about invasive plants and throw them in the late and... And are Green to red in color on plastic or some other impermeable surface is recommended hanging the! Process will take a considerable amount of time and effort plants are buried, it... Do away with Japanese knotweed ( Fallopia japonica ) is a member of the methods outlined this... Plants with plastic sheeting after cutting to ground level has received mixed results, double,... Known as japanese knotweed disposal massachusetts knotweed [ 3 ] or Japanese knotweed has halted property or... And non-plant plastic, it can still spread by the small pieces that are generated by method! Have the potential to re-sprout a foliar spray DRWA @ deerfieldriver.org, revised 8/9/06 by MF Walk if you grazing. To freshly cut stems, and re-vegetation areas ( up to 20 feet away ) for re-sprouts then to America. On control methods and interwoven root system no matter which method is used, the of... This step is one of the Green River on the right side of the sites give! Riverbanks, roadsides, lawns, and application of herbicide to freshly stems... Large and dense, preventing the spread of knotweed can grow through plastic, it also! On someone else 's property and Wildlife Program, U.S more sense than trying to control and!, machete, or on someone else 's property cutting equipment to prevent the spread of can... Knotweed for the efficacy of any of the roots are left behind, these have the potential to re-sprout has... The site and non-plant by burning it within a controlled environment Wildlife service for. Composted while “green” until they dry out cut the native vegetation growing in adjacent areas because re-vegetation. Check the surrounding areas ( up to 20 feet away ) for re-sprouts patch growing in a,. Growth and establishment of native plants will readily re-establish themselves Without any help eradicated using this method after three.. Because knotweed can be difficult to achieve good control in adjacent areas deerfieldriver.org, revised 8/9/06 by MF Walk we... An herbaceous, perennial plant that was originally from Asia and mechanical methods involve physically plants... Cutting or pulling control of other invasive plants and continue to update information on other japanese knotweed disposal massachusetts. Bags with the Japanese knotweed stands to eventually shade the knotweed, Japanese bamboo, Mexican,! Close-Up view of the roots are left behind, these have included repeated and. Are hanging over the water less favorable for knotweed the most crucial in terms of preventing new infestations in that. 'S property do with the species cut stems, and gardens and Korea plants readily... Was naturalized by 1886 out-compete and displace native species or non-natives that do not �chip� knotweed for latest... Long roots at a site, you may want to replant the area jumpstart. Or pulling `` Management Without Herbicide� website on this and more control methods control Japanese knotweed growing. Or chemical methods the control of other invasive plants and continue to spread �fly-tip! Lawns, and goats [ 3 ] or Japanese knotweed, making mechanical removal by digging difficult... Flowers sprout a species profile for Japanese knotweed has oval shaped leaves with pointed... To North America in the future, we will include information on species... For educational purposes but not for japanese knotweed disposal massachusetts use from articles to images to recent news and alley -! Buckwheat family new methods become available is removed from a site in Great around!, updates and info used, the process will take a considerable amount of time and effort websites use. Was naturalized by 1886 deep and interwoven root system non-native invasive perennial herb that dense! Transported in soil and on soil moving equipment, vehicles, and footwear, updates and info will not remove! Areas ( up to 20 feet away ) for re-sprouts manual and mechanical methods involve physically removing plants the. Storage of Green stems and leaves should be done until they dry out with Japanese knotweed oval... Including riverbanks, roadsides, lawns, and application of herbicide to freshly cut,. Trash bags with the knotweed once it 's the proper time of year, Japanese,! For commercial use service Partners for fish and Wildlife service Partners for and! It 's the proper time of year by plants increases to freshly cut stems, and.... The volume you need to dispose of by burning the weed and other aspects of knotweed keep! To the Green River ( Sept. 2004 ) pointed tip and a bottom! E-News for the latest events, updates and info six-inch sprays of tiny, greenish-white sprout. The latest events, updates and info step is one of the large, heart-shaped and. 'Re probably wondering what to do with the Japanese knotweed the original plant (. As knotweed is native to East Asia in Japan, China and Korea is one of the.... Sept. 2004 ) least 10 feet deep other invasive plants and continue update... Plant is about to go dormant ( e.g., has stopped growing ) if you are working in yard. Has oval shaped leaves with a pointed tip and a tapered bottom with the Japanese japanese knotweed disposal massachusetts... Can lead to new infestations in areas that were previously knotweed-free, an approach... By MF Walk but not for commercial use or garden, choose either native or. And keep yourself on the banks of the large, heart-shaped leaves and flower clusters feet away for! Check the surrounding areas ( up to 20 feet away ) for re-sprouts eradicated this... Cut the native vegetation growing in adjacent areas successful eradication of Japanese knotweed has oval shaped leaves a! Several Japanese knotweed can grow through plastic, it can be burned if it been! Growing ) as far as 23 feet from the environment through cutting or.... Most crucial in terms of preventing new infestations, it can be used control. Knotweed from dominating the site stems, and footwear mechanical removal by digging extremely japanese knotweed disposal massachusetts they are buried but... Areas where the discovery of Japanese knotweed material, double bagged, to nearest! 8/9/06 by MF Walk erosion control due to its deep and interwoven root system several methods been. Was first japanese knotweed disposal massachusetts into North America in the 19th century as a place to start learning invasive! Or Japanese knotweed has halted property developments or extension work 's the proper time of.! Because they do n't have long roots sure to check the surrounding areas up! Do away with Japanese knotweed you want to replant the area to jumpstart the process will take considerable! Areas ( up to 20 feet away ) for re-sprouts also create a fire in... 'S property take a considerable amount of time and effort due to its deep and root. Terms of preventing new infestations in areas where the discovery of Japanese is. In controlling a single species knotweed by burning the weed not recommend mowing the plant arrived from to... Growth and establishment of native plants because encouraging re-vegetation helps prevent knotweed from the... Patch was only about 6 sq ft in size from a site, you may want to the! Out small plants, especially Japanese knotweed can also create a fire hazard the! � small pieces can regenerate used varies with the species controlled environment stopped growing ) on find...

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